Brazil’s Smartphone Census

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Category : Development, Digital, Six Oranges

It is a country that has high levels of poverty and inequality and asks its citizens on the very first page of the national census if they use a hole in the ground or open cesspit for a toilet. Yet despite all of these obstacles, the Brazilian government has embarked on the world’s first fully digital national census.

It has achieved this ahead of countries like the US whose digital trials failed and resulted in it reverting to an old-fashioned paper based census. The Brazilian census is another example of how developing and emerging countries are using technology to address the challenges they face and leapfrogging developed countries. Click here to see a picture slide show of the socio-economic and political issues of the Brazil 2010 census.

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), who conducted the survey, opted for off the shelf technology. It ordered 150,000 LG 750 GM smartphones which are widely available and retail at around £180 (US$280). Census interviewers collected responses onto the smartphones which in turn were used to send the data via GPS to one of 7,000 data collection units.

The Brazilians say that the digital census has several advantages over paper and pen methods. They say that the data is more accurate since GPS data will pinpoint the exact location of a household. The GPS data is cross-referenced with satellite images to ensure that responses are correctly geo-tagged. The digital approach allows changes to areas, streets and buildings to be incorporated. This is particularly pertinent in the slums as these areas tend to change quickly and their density mean that printed maps are quickly out of date. The use of digital technology means that mapping is considerably more accurate and that adjustments and changes can be made all the time to ensure that the coverage is as comprehensive as possible.

IBGE estimates that upto 5 per cent of households are incorrectly located in traditional censuses compared with 0.5 per cent of digital data. The census allows data to be collected from remote areas with digital data collection being easier and more robust than paper-based ones. It will ensure that previously hard to reach communities are included in the census for the first time.

The mapping technology also allows for more detailed information on the spatial distribution of public resources such as schools and health centres relative to the density and need of the people and communities around them. The census is also considerably cheaper and is environmentally friendly with the need for paper reduced to a minimum. The budget for the entire survey is R$ 1.67 billion (US$909 million) for a population of 58 million households. Compare this with the US where CNN.com suggests its census will cost US$14 billion for a population that is just one-third greater than that of Brazil’s.

Technology experts say that the US’s digital approach failed because Harris Corporation, the organisation hired for the job, failed because it looked to develop a bespoke hardware device to collect data. Brazil on the other hand had only to develop bespoke software and applications for its computers and smartphones.

Asked about the security and reliability of the data collection, Eduardo Nunes, IBGE President said that data is collected and backed up on the smartphones on two separate memory drives and that data transmitted to collection centres is immediately backed up with integrity tests. Mr Nunes said interviewers experienced little resistance not least because where possible they were recruited from within their communities. He added that paper censuses can get lost too and that their approach had been tested on other surveys since 2007. IBGE

IBGE will also benefit from the faster turnaround of data with the first tranche of data available in months rather than years.

The Government has invested in the digital approach not only to save money but also because it will be central to designing better public policy.

Mr Nunes said: “ Greater emphasis in the 2010 census was given to information on social and demographic spheres. We want to know when and how Brazil will be able to reach the Millennium Development Goals for 2015.”

Marcia Lopes, minister for Social Development said that many social programmes bring basic services such as electricity, health and education to the population: “This census is so important because we in the Government need to know what the population needs.”

Click here to see a picture slide show of the socio-economic and political issues of the Brazil 2010 census.

War on Want and the Bitter Taste of Tea

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Category : Development, Multimedia, Uncategorized, Video

Campaigning and advocacy group War on Want have just released a report on the pitiful pay and conditions that tea workers endure throughout the world. It’s an industry that really hasn’t changed a great deal since colonial times. In fact, WoW state that their first report on abuses in the tea industry go back 40 years and sadly they have to report now that things have not changed.

The report challenges the large supermarkets who are cashing-in on a boom in tea sales to insist on better pay and conditions for estate workers.

As well as linking to the WoW site – this gives me an opportunity to link to Tom Heineman’s excellent award-winning documentary, The Bitter Taste of Tea, on the not so fair practices of Fairtrade certified tea estates. His investigation found that Fairtrade tea estates were not passing on the premiums to the workers as Fairtrade certification states it ought to and serves to remind us that we all ought to read behind the headline message.

The documentary has been broadcast in a number of European countries and was the motivation behind some work that I produced a little while back

Why India will never produce a $35 iPad or slate computer

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Category : Development, Digital, news


So I got quite excited when I read that the Indian Government had announced that it was going to produce an iPad/slate type computer powered by solar batteries with wi-fi and web-conferencing facilities all for the princely sum of $35 a unit.

The plan is to get 110 million of these units into the hands of school children in India. But this got the alarm bells ringing. I interviewed Nicholas Negroponte, (apologies if you get The Times’ paywall/registration page) the brains behind the One Laptop per Child programme to get a laptop into the hands of every child in developing country, a couple of years back. There were issues with production and take up. His units are far simpler and a lot less sophisticated and still they cost $100 a piece. He’s also announced a tablet for $75 but this is scheduled for 2012.

In a devastating critique, Mike Elgan of ComputerWorld, explains exactly why the $35 is nothing more than government hype and in Elgan’s words:

The $35 tablet announcement was nothing more than shameless political opportunism. The world’s media were suckered (again) — hook, line and sinker.

The whole affair is a shameful, disgusting spectacle that represents everything that’s wrong with politics, the media and public gullibility in the new idiocracy.

Cheap computers are nice. But what we really need is a little common sense.

Put simply, he says that the components alone would cost well in excess of the announced price. He points out among many other things that the cost of a screen is $35 alone and these would have to be imported from China as they are the leaders in manufacturing such components.

Negroponte did offer some interesting anecdotes about the OLPC programme in Latin America. He said that not only were the kids learning but that they in turn were teaching their parents to use the computers and that some were then using them for their own businesses.

There’s no questioning the importance of bridging the digital divide but one might argue that it’s the folks in developing countries who need a lesson or two on what is and is not feasible in a digital world.

Below is a video that might help. This is not real – it’s only an advert. Peugeot have not moved their production facilities to India . . .

Obama’s criticism of Wall Street banks extends to microfinance sector

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Category : Development, microfinance, news

Microfinance banks and their owners are no better than Wall Street banks and their owners. So says Jonathan Lewis a microfinancier, social entrepreneur and commentator.

In an excellent article in the Huffington Post, Lewis makes the point that Barack Obama’s criticisms of the “bandits” of Wall Street (in the run up to passing stricter regulation of banking practice) are just as applicable to the profit-seeking microfinance business.

He explains why the neat solutions offered by microfinance are attractive but that the reality in many cases is predatory behaviour, exploitation of the poor and misuse of the market and funds.

“Microfinance is not a cure-all, an economic development elixir. Microfinance does not build roads, schools or clinics; it has not stopped a war or cleared a mine field, nor does it preserve pristine rivers, protect endangered species or restore cultural treasures.

The public brand of microfinance is impoverished micro-entrepreneurs, mostly women, valiantly raising families while operating tiny businesses. For a nation [US] whose self-image extols the self-made man, the maverick Western sheriff and the college drop-out who becomes the richest man in the world, the narrative is seductive. It converts the self-employed poor, victimized by the formal economy, into an icon of economic opportunity.”

One interesting by-product of all the recent criticism is position taken by Muhammud Yunus of Grameen Bank who is quoted in this article. He is trying to distance himself from this criticism by balling out other banks as excessive profit takers. But he has failed to respond to criticism of his own organisation and the overblown claims of microfinance that he continues to peddle.

As I have recorded, there are increasing critiques, exposes and research papers which seriously question the claims of microfinance, its supporters and banks. It will be interesting to see how Yunus positions himself as what Lewis calls the, “whiff of hypocrisy and the odor of malfeasance” in the sector becomes a huge stink.

How the third world can help people like Bob Geldof?

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Category : Development, news

Interesting ideas at the website Design for the First World where a competition is being held for designers and inventors in developing countries to help developed with their problems.

Were you surprised or did you chuckle at the thought that people in developing countries might be able to help those in developed? Well the author (who is from a developing country) says that this is is just plain wrong and I would agree:

“Design for the First World shouldn’t be funny. The phrase “Third World minds design­ing for First World Prob­lems” pro­vokes smiles in many includ­ing myself. But why is it funny? Why do we assume that Third World minds shouldn’t be involved in the prob­lems of the First World? In all hon­esty and bold­ness I think we (the Devel­op­ing World) have grown accus­tomed to the top help­ing the bot­tom and because of that we’ve grown lazy. We don’t even think things can be both ways. We can help them! I believe there is a need to re-educate our­selves as devel­op­ing coun­tries and gain agency.”